Le 13 mai 1940, Winston Churchill, tout récent Premier ministre britannique, se présente devant les députés anglais, à la Chambre des Communes, pour y présenter sa future action gouvernementale, alors que les Panzers allemands commencent à envahir la Belgique et la France. L’Angleterre reste alors le dernier rempart face à l’Allemagne nazie.
Voici la partie la plus célèbre de son discours en traduction française, puis sa version originale intégrale :
« A la Chambre des communes, je dirai comme je l’ai dit à ceux qui ont rejoint le gouvernement : « Je n’ai rien d’autre à offrir que du sang, de la peine, des larmes et de la sueur ».
Nous avons devant nous une épreuve des plus douloureuses. Nous avons devant nous de nombreux et longs mois de combat et de souffrance.
Vous demandez, quelle est notre politique ? Je peux vous dire : c’est d’engager le combat sur terre, sur mer et dans les airs, avec toute la puissance, la force que Dieu peut nous donner ; engager le combat contre une monstrueuse tyrannie, sans égale dans les sombres et désolantes annales du crime. Voilà notre politique.
Vous demandez, quel est notre but ? Je peux répondre en un mot : la victoire, la victoire à tout prix, la victoire en dépit de la terreur, la victoire aussi long et dur que soit le chemin qui nous y mènera ; car sans victoire, il n’y a pas de survie. »
« On Friday evening last I received from His Majesty the mission to form a new administration. It was the evident will of’ Parliament and the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest possible basis and that it should include all parties.
I have already completed the most important part of this task.
A war cabinet has been formed of five members, representing, with the Labour, Opposition, and Liberals, the unity of the nation. It was necessary that this should be done in one single day on account of the extreme urgency and rigor of events. Other key positions were filled yesterday. I am submitting a further list to the king tonight. I hope to complete the appointment of principal ministers during tomorrow.
The appointment of other ministers usually takes a little longer. I trust when Parliament meets again this part of my task will be completed and that the administration will be complete in all respects. I considered it in the public interest to suggest to the Speaker that the House should be summoned today. At the end of today’s proceedings, the adjournment of the House will be proposed until May 21 with provision for earlier meeting if need be. Business for that will be notified to MPs at the earliest opportunity.
I now invite the House by a resolution to record its approval of the steps taken and declare its confidence in the new government.
« That this House welcomes the formation of a government representing the united and inflexible resolve of the nation to prosecute the war with Germany to a victorious conclusion. » To form an administration of this scale and complexity is a serious undertaking in itself. But we are in the preliminary phase of one of the greatest battles in history. We are in action at many other points-in Norway and in Holland-and we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean. The air battle is continuing, and many preparations have to be made here at home.
In this crisis I think I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today, and I hope that any of my friends and colleagues or former colleagues who are affected by the political reconstruction will make all allowances for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act.
I say to the House as I said to ministers who have joined this government, I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many months of struggle and suffering.
You ask, what is our policy? I say it is to wage war by land, sea, and air. War with all our might and with all the strength God has given us, and to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.
You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word. It is victory. Victory at all costs – Victory in spite of all terrors – Victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival.
Let that be realized. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge, the impulse of the ages, that mankind shall move forward toward his goal.
I take up my task in buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men. I feel entitled at this juncture, at this time, to claim the aid of all and to say, « Come then, let us go forward together with our united strength. »